Communities around the world are facing a growing storm. Complex challenges including water scarcity, changing demographics, extreme weather patterns, and aging or overly stressed infrastructure are colliding to threaten critical water, energy, transport, enterprise and health networks. The water industry is in the eye of the storm.
Turbidity, as a measure of cloudiness or haze in water, has many useful applications for industrial processes, pharmaceutical manufacturing, environmental monitoring, and utility applications. Unlike general commercial applications, however, the use of turbidity readings in municipal drinking water treatment comes with unique demands and considerations related to regulatory compliance.
The key aspects to any process measurement and control of water is the quality and safety of the end product, in this case drinking water. There are three important factors that contribute to the quality of the product. Those factors are the performance of the measurement and control instrumentation, the long term reliability of the measurement and the inherent safety to the consumer.
New York City is home to more than 8 million people, making it the most populous city in the United States. The majority of New York's drinking water is supplied by the Catskill/Delaware watershed, located approximately 100 miles outside the city. Historically, NYC has not filtered the water from this system, nor did they require any additional barriers to microbial contaminants due to the pristine nature of the watershed.
Lead in drinking water has become a very visible issue of considerable concern over the last few months. While municipalities across America have been scrutinizing the quality of their drinking water, it should at least be some consolation that manufacturers of measurement instrumentation have taken serious steps to assure that they are not contributing to the problems that have been encountered.
Many of us who have been around the water industry for a while can recall the days of manually calibrating online analyzers. The arsenal would include: a cart of tools, calibration standard, “calibrators”, and “zero sources”. These tools would only be used a few times a year, if that. Although the calibration of water analysis instruments should be performed on a monthly basis, most operators would admit to only calibrating them once or twice a year.
The term wastewater can be applied to a wide range of water sources from municipal sewage to storm runoff to industrial discharge water. By Michael Sheedy, Vice President of Technology and George Di Falco, Marketing Communications, Eco-Tec Inc.
The Kittansett Golf Club in Marion, Massachusetts is rated one of America’s 100 Greatest Golf Courses by Golf Digest Magazine.
Malta is an archipelago of three islands situated in the Mediterranean Sea, around fifty miles south of Sicily. There are no rivers of any significance on the islands, and the sparse annual rainfall is only about 500 mm. There is a water deficit in Malta. It occurs especially in summer when there is a great demand from the farmers for their irrigation and from the tourism sector.
A water quality audit revealed that two of the largest drinking water plants in the City of Montreal were out of compliance with Quebec’s latest water quality rules. Both drinking water facilities were located in heavily populated areas; consequently, plant modifications had to be accomplished within their existing infrastructure footprints.
The NEOSEP® MBR system features Kruger’s uniquely designed K-120C and K-240C flat sheet membrane modules. The modules offer several innovative design features that enhance ease of installation, operation and maintenance. This includes an integrated central lifting eye, offering an incredibly well balanced module that makes installation and retrieval a simple and stress-free process.
The water municipality at a mid-size city in the Western region of the U.S. serving a population of about 180,000 people needed to address a chlorine disinfection system problem at one of its water treatment plants.
3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors offer a modular skid option for off-shore oil platforms that is significantly smaller and lighter than traditional vacuum towers.
"The variable concentration of solids when purging lamella clarifiers creates problems with sludge dewatering. These problems are exacerbated when changing the flocculant. Read the full application note to learn how automatic control of purge cycles for clarifiers using the Sonatax sludge level probe resulted in reduced energy consumption and maintenance at the plant."
The analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in seawater can be both challenging and expensive. The concentration of organic carbon in seawater is of considerable interest. The effect this matrix can have on TOC analyzers can lead to rapid consumable turnover, costly maintenance and repairs.
There are several basic methods for reducing harmonic voltage and current distortion from nonlinear distribution loads such as adjustable frequency drives (AFDs). Following is a description of each method, along with each method’s advantages and disadvantages.
Two new particle detecting technologies have been developed to help optimize filter performance at water treatment plants (WTP).
Hypochlorite has some significant environmental concerns associated with DBPs and residual toxicity.
While point level measuring approaches are regarded as simple and user-friendly, they lack the capabilities of more sophisticated continuous measuring instruments.
It's spring and the algae are in bloom, but harmful algal blooms are far from the only threats to drinking water. Fortunately, there are advanced treatment technologies to handle some of the most persistent contaminants today, including algal toxins, Cryptosporidium, and 1,4-dioxane.
A Q&A with Gary Wong, chairman of the SWAN North American Alliance
Water utilities must protect the public health by producing a final product that meets all regulatory requirements. In addition, the water must be pleasing to the customer, with no taste or odor issues. And finally, utilities must stay abreast of emerging contaminants, health advisories, and new regulations. It’s a constant challenge to shoulder these responsibilities while staying within tight budgets. Utilities need a technology that helps them achieve multiple goals cost-effectively.
Sampling and laboratory testing are major responsibilities for water professionals. Test results are used for process control, and ultimately to determine that water is safe for drinking, reuse, or discharge to the environment. Regulatory agencies rely on reported results for proof of permit compliance. So, obtaining representative, properly collected and preserved samples is the first critical step to ensure accurate test results.
Water and wastewater utilities must monitor numerous aspects of their systems on a continuous basis. Various instruments are used to measure these processes, producing volumes of data every day. Endress+Hauser is a leading supplier of products and services for process measurement and automation. Water Online spoke with three of Endress+Hauser's experts to find out how data loggers and managers can save costs while providing effective data management.
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.