DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

Factoring Temperature Into Water Chemistry Reading Accuracy
Factoring Temperature Into Water Chemistry Reading Accuracy

In water testing, readings that we believe to be reliable indicators are not always what they seem. Water that exhibits certain chemical or electrical characteristics at laboratory temperatures can provide entirely different readings in the field. Here is a quick review of what to look for in common water tests and why to consider automatic temperature compensation in the instruments used to collect them.

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

  • Using ATP In A Legionella Water Management Plan
    Using ATP In A Legionella Water Management Plan

    Between December 2014 and September 2015 there were three clusters of Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks in the Bronx, New York City. Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia, is caused by inhaling aerosolized water containing certain pathogenic strains of Legionella bacteria. Legionella thrive in warm, stagnant water with low disinfection residuals such as hot water tanks, hot tubs, cooling towers, decorative fountains and showerheads.

  • Multi-Barrier Disinfection Strategy - New York City (Case Study)
    Multi-Barrier Disinfection Strategy - New York City (Case Study)

    New York City is home to more than 8 million people, making it the most populous city in the United States. The majority of New York's drinking water is supplied by the Catskill/Delaware watershed, located approximately 100 miles outside the city. Historically, NYC has not filtered the water from this system, nor did they require any additional barriers to microbial contaminants due to the pristine nature of the watershed.

  • THM Removal System Successfully Removes Over 65% Of THM Species In Water Storage Tank At The End Of 60 Mile Transmission Line
    THM Removal System Successfully Removes Over 65% Of THM Species In Water Storage Tank At The End Of 60 Mile Transmission Line

    In Canada and the western United States, long treated water transmission lines are frequently utilized to convey potable water to rural communities. These long transmission lines combined with chlorine for water disinfection can often create the requisite conditions for the formation of undesirable disinfection-byproducts (DBPs). One of the most common DBPs is a family of volatile compounds called Trihalomethanes (THMs) which are regulated in Canada to a level of 100 ppb (part-per-billion) annual average and in the US to a level of 80 ppb.

  • Water District Solves Metering Problem: Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Technology Provides Accurate Measurements
    Water District Solves Metering Problem: Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Technology Provides Accurate Measurements

    The Jacksonville JEA water district had a problem. Its measurements showed that it was distributing significantly more water than it was removing from its wells.

  • Use Of UV Technology Gaining Acceptance Within Process Industries
    Use Of UV Technology Gaining Acceptance Within Process Industries

    The use of Ultra Violet (UV) technology within process industries has grown tremendously in recent years. Water, fruit juice, syrup and brines are increasingly seen as the largest volume ingredient in many food products, and the need to protect human health, whilst reduce the level of chemical preservatives, and to extend shelf life leads to the incorporation of UV systems within the food manufacturing process.

  • Cyanide Analysis Of Wastewater Samples From FCC And Hydrocracking Operations
    Cyanide Analysis Of Wastewater Samples From FCC And Hydrocracking Operations

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a major unit operation in refineries around the world. FCC is used to convert lowvalue, high molecular weight feedstocks such as shale oil, tar sands oil, and coker gas oils into lighter, high-value products by “cracking” C-C bonds.

  • Southern California Water District Reduces Polymer Usage 30% With Polyblend® Polymer Activation System
    Southern California Water District Reduces Polymer Usage 30% With Polyblend® Polymer Activation System

    Santa Margarita Water District (SMWD), located in southern California’s Orange County, between Los Angeles and San Diego, provides drinking water and wastewater services to over 165,000 residents and businesses. SMWD approached UGSI Solutions about a Polyblend® Polymer Activation System trial at their 3 A Water Reclamation Plant.

  • Ozone To Enhance Removal Of Iron And Manganese And Reduction Of THM
    Ozone To Enhance Removal Of Iron And Manganese And Reduction Of THM

    The U.S. EPA's promulgation of the Stage 2 Disinfection By-Products Rule required  the Public Works Department of Danvers, MA, to establish a Two-Phase upgrade of the plant’s treatment process in order to comply.

  • Improving Flow Measurement Accuracy With Flow Conditioners
    Improving Flow Measurement Accuracy With Flow Conditioners

    When looking for a way to reduce plant operating costs, one of the potentially simplest and often least expensive solutions is to measure liquid and gas flow more accurately. Plant upgrade projects that focus on the continuous improvement of flow measurement and control can trim overall production costs by eliminating waste and reducing maintenance costs.

  • Water Treatment Plant Solves Taste And Odor Problems And High Toxin Levels
    Water Treatment Plant Solves Taste And Odor Problems And High Toxin Levels

    Phoenix is one of the country’s fastest growing metropolitan areas and has one of the most arid desert climates. Population growth coupled with increasingly stringent water regulations pushed the city to proactively address future water supply concerns. The decision was made to build the Lake Pleasant Water Treatment Plant (WTP) and include oxidation and disinfection treatment barriers.

More Drinking Water Treatment Case Studies and White Papers

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT APPLICATION NOTES

  • Application Bulletin: Reverse Osmosis
    Application Bulletin: Reverse Osmosis

    Osmosis is the phenomenon of lower dissolved solids in water passing through a semi-permeable membrane into higher dissolved solids water until a near equilibrium is reached

  • Lab Gas Sub-Metering Accuracy Improves With Thermal Flow Meters To Save Money
    Lab Gas Sub-Metering Accuracy Improves With Thermal Flow Meters To Save Money

    Facility administrators will find the advanced ST100 Series Thermal Mass Air/Gas Flow Meter from Fluid Components International (FCI) helps them improve the accuracy of specialty gas point of use and sub-metering operations to achieve accurate billing in their labs for better cost tracking and control.

  • Immediate pH Correction For Fluctuating Flow
    Immediate pH Correction For Fluctuating Flow

    In a number of water, wastewater and industrial process applications, pH is one of the most critical and highly sensitive analytical measurements.  Examples of critical pH applications include: Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems in which a controlled feed of caustic solution is typically added to the feed stream in order to convert a portion of dissolved carbon dioxide into bicarbonate precipitate allowing for removal by the RO membrane. By Rafik H. Bishara, Steve Jacobs, and Dan Bell

  • TOC Analysis: The Best Tool In A Drinking Water Facility’s Toolbox
    TOC Analysis: The Best Tool In A Drinking Water Facility’s Toolbox

    SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions designs and manufactures Sievers Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzers that enable near real-time reporting of organic carbon levels for treatment optimization, quality control & regulatory compliance. TOC has a wide range of applicability at a drinking water plant, and therefore any drinking water utility — large or small — can measure TOC in their laboratory or online in their treatment process.

  • Validation Of Environmental Water Methods On One System
    Validation Of Environmental Water Methods On One System

    Water quality laboratories across the nation are faced with both a rising level of water quality awareness amongst the general public, as well as rising costs in water quality monitoring. As a result, laboratories are looking for more efficient ways to provide higher quality monitoring.

  • Flow Meter Enhances Chlorination System Performance For Municipal Water Department
    Flow Meter Enhances Chlorination System Performance For Municipal Water Department

    The water municipality at a mid-size city in the Western region of the U.S. serving a population of about 180,000 people needed to address a chlorine disinfection system problem at one of its water treatment plants.

  • A Strategy For Optimizing Water Treatment Plant Performance Using Light Scatter Technologies
    A Strategy For Optimizing Water Treatment Plant Performance Using Light Scatter Technologies

    Two new particle detecting technologies have been developed to help optimize filter performance at water treatment plants (WTP).

  • Application Note: YSI 600 Optical Monitoring System Used To Protect Lake Oconee, Georgia Water Quality Northern Georgia is experiencing unprecedented development; consequently, water quality in many of its watersheds is in jeopardy of severe degradation. The State of Georgia, Environmental Protection Division (EPD) has implemented an NPDES monitoring and enforcement program designed to prevent construction activities from impacting water quality
  • Increase Ink Jet Print Speeds By 15% With 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ SP Series Membrane Contactors
    Increase Ink Jet Print Speeds By 15% With 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ SP Series Membrane Contactors

    Many high-speed, wide-format ink jet printer manufacturers are now using 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ SP Series Membrane Contactors to remove air bubbles and excess gases from ink to reduce downtime and improve yields. Entrained bubbles and excess gases are often the cause of printing surface defects and ink flow interruptions that can cause printer shut-downs.

  • (E)-2-Nonenal In Beer
    (E)-2-Nonenal In Beer

    Numerous compounds contribute to changes in beer flavor as it becomes stale. One of these compounds, (E)-2-nonenal, has been investigated as a major source of the papery/cardboard flavor that develops in aged beer.

More Drinking Water Treatment Application Notes

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTS

SANILEC® 6 Portable Sodium Hypochlorite Generator SANILEC® 6 Portable Sodium Hypochlorite Generator

De Nora Water Technologies’ SANILEC® 6 system generates sodium hypochlorite wherever and whenever disinfection is required. These lightweight, extremely portable systems are designed for use in rural or isolated locations where water purification, waste treatment or surface disinfection is required. SANILEC 6 systems are ideal for use in areas where chemical storage creates a risk or in areas where other disinfectant chemicals are in short supply.

AquaDiamond<sup>®</sup> Cloth Media Filtration System AquaDiamond® Cloth Media Filtration System

The AquaDiamond® filter, a new horizontal configuration for the Cloth Media Filter, has been produced. It utilizes PA-13 pile cloth as its filter media.

SuperSettler&trade; Featuring The ZICKERT Shark&trade; SuperSettler™ Featuring The ZICKERT Shark™
The efficient design of the SuperSettler™ Lamella Plate Clarifier utilizes lamella plates and shallow depth sedimentation to minimize the clarifier footprint.
WEDECO K Series Ultraviolet Reactors by Xylem WEDECO K Series Ultraviolet Reactors by Xylem

WEDECO K Series UV Reactors are used for large flow drinking water applications

Wallace & Tiernan® Disinfection Wallace & Tiernan® Disinfection

Evoqua Water Technologies is the premier provider of total disinfection and chemical dosing solutions. Our extensive portfolio, which includes the trusted Wallace & Tiernan product line, is designed to meet your most rigorous demands in virtually any water application and give you access to both the latest advances and widest range of proven technologies.

Field Pilot Studies Field Pilot Studies

Pilot tests conducted at numerous facilities demonstrate that Loprest treatment processes successfully reduce iron, manganese, arsenic, nitrate, and many other select contaminants in drinking water to well below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Loprest can provide self-contained portable, free-standing pilot units or mobile, trailer-mounted units, depending on specific testing needs at each site. Services include unit delivery, setup, and operation. Upon completion of the pilot study, Loprest will prepare a Pilot Study Report and a detailed cost proposal for a full-scale system.

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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

  • Calibrating Success: Improved Tools To Maintain Flowmeter Accuracy
    Calibrating Success: Improved Tools To Maintain Flowmeter Accuracy

    Water utilities with highly successful monitoring programs tend to share a common trait: they have a well-defined plan for calibration that emphasizes frequency and tracking. However, when done properly, this process is time-consuming and often leads to unnecessary labor and downtime. The good news is that advanced metering technology is available for plants to get a better handle on the instrument’s performance with significantly less effort.

  • Do Your Plant Instruments Play Nice With Others? The Benefits Of Integrated Technologies
    Do Your Plant Instruments Play Nice With Others? The Benefits Of Integrated Technologies

    Digital devices provide two-way communication, so they can be programmed from the control room. However, the bigger benefit is that they can be part of a system offering assured interoperability to provide a seamless flow of information. This type of integration between key components of the water treatment and distribution process improves decision-making and overall equipment optimization.

  • Water Monitoring's Triple Threat: Bad Habits, Bad Readings, Bad Results
    Water Monitoring's Triple Threat: Bad Habits, Bad Readings, Bad Results

    When water and wastewater plant operators can’t get accurate flow measurements or analytical readings — or lack confidence in their instruments’ readings — it creates challenges with the process. When substandard water goes to homes and causes a boil order, or discharge pollutes a lake or reservoir, the resulting bad press, fines, and potential lawsuits erode public confidence. Avoiding these kinds of problems is rooted in good preventive maintenance habits.

  • Sounding The Alarm On Silent Noncompliance
    Sounding The Alarm On Silent Noncompliance

    Water and wastewater utility operators work diligently to operate within strict guidelines, ensuring their facilities are producing the best drinking water and highest quality effluent possible. Despite all their efforts, however, it can be easy to fall outside of regulatory compliance without even being aware. The key to avoiding problems like these is to understand how silent noncompliance can happen and knowing when to raise a red flag.

  • Benefits And Disadvantages Of The Advanced Oxidation Process
    Benefits And Disadvantages Of The Advanced Oxidation Process

    In many water and wastewater treatment applications, there are a number of pollutants that are difficult to reduce by physical, chemical, or biological means alone. In more recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding pharmaceutical drugs in drinking water and aquatic environments. Pesticides get caught in runoff from farms into freshwater supplies. 

  • Igniting A Smart Water Movement
    Igniting A Smart Water Movement

    Water scarcity. Aging infrastructure. Uncertainty due to climate change. Experts from across the water sector agree that water challenges are intensifying, and that action and public awareness is a necessity. Now we have the need — and the opportunity — for those same voices to raise the volume on one of the most powerful ways to address increasing water threats: digital innovation.

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DRINKING WATER TREATMENT VIDEOS

The YSI Pro2030 Handheld Conductivity And DO Meter Video The YSI Pro2030 Handheld Conductivity And DO Meter Video

The YSI Pro2030 DO/conductivity water quality meter is ideal for any field application. The instrument is rugged and extremely simple to use.

Webinar: Optimize Mixed Bed & EDI Systems With Integrated Membrane System Designs Webinar: Optimize Mixed Bed & EDI Systems With Integrated Membrane System Designs

Discover how integrated membrane system designs can maximize the operating stability of EDI systems and reduce mixed bed regeneration frequency.

Low Flow Sampling Using A TROLL® 9500 Water Quality Instrument

The TROLL® 9500 Water Quality Instrument simplifies multiparameter monitoring. The TROLL 9500 is a powerful, portable unit that houses up to nine water quality sensors, internal power, and optional data logging capabilities.

Video: Hanna Instruments 98703 Portable Turbidity Meter Video: Hanna Instruments 98703 Portable Turbidity Meter
The Hanna Instruments 98703 portable turbidity meter is perfect for stormwater testing.
Earth Day Outreach: Insights On Water Conservation And Quality Earth Day Outreach: Insights On Water Conservation And Quality

"Wastewater Dan” talks with FOX 4 News Kansas City about drought conditions in California and procedures to conserve water in the home. He also demonstrates the use of a total dissolved solids (TDS) meter to test drinking water quality, and interprets the results.

More From Drinking Water Treatment Videos

ABOUT DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.

The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.

The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.

During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.

Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.