For municipal waterworks supervisors, keeping curb boxes in good working order is critical. But this job can become even more complicated by the prevalence of acidic soils across the U.S., which accelerates corrosion along with costly repair and replacement.
In California, water is precious, competition for water is fierce and conservation is critical. In the midst of the state’s worst drought to date, Governor Jerry Brown declared historic statewide mandatory water restrictions calling for a 25 percent reduction in water usage through February 2016.
Birmingham Water Works Board (BWWB), Birmingham, Alabama has consistently achieved the rating of the number five water system in the United States for water quality. BWWB’s potable water distribution system (WDS) serves 600,000 people with a daily average use of 100 million gallons (378 million liters) of water, received from nearby lakes and rivers. The system includes 51 water storage tanks, nearly 4,000 miles (6,437 km) of pipe, over 13,000 fire hydrants and over 200,000 service connections.
Water is a precious resource! Now, more than ever, businesses and facilities must take charge of their water usage to help with water conservation and lower water bills.
Not getting a handle on NRW guarantees it will continue to haunt your operation.
Advanced metering infrastructure — that includes smart meters to facilitate communication between a consumer and the utility — takes a major step toward water conservation by making it easier to establish district metered areas, or DMAs. Monitoring these DMAs for synchronized production and consumption data is one of the most cost-effective ways of spotting leaks, thereby reducing non-revenue water.
Easton Suburban Water Authority (ESWA) is in the business of providing water to its customers, not managing technology. One summer, Technology Manager Tim Ryan had enough with focusing valuable time and resources on the utility’s Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) IT network and servers.
In the 1990s, the City of Wichita, KS, developed a water supply plan that included creating a sustainable water supply through the year 2050. The key component of the plan is recharging the large aquifer that lies under the region with 100 MGD of water from the Little Arkansas River.
Nestled in the Finger Lakes region in upstate New York, the town of Owasco is a popular vacation spot. With about 4,000 residents, the town, along with the nearby community of Auburn, relies on Owasco Lake for its drinking water. In 2016, Owasco and Auburn detected algal toxins in their finished water for the first time. With the busy summer tourist season quickly approaching, GHD contacted Calgon Carbon.
Clayton was plagued with exceptionally high non-revenue water rates in the 50 percent range. The city attributed the problem to leaks in its water system (parts of which have been in place the 1920s) that are exasperated by high pressure levels needed to pump water to more than 3200 service connections throughout Clayton’s mountainous terrain located 2200ft above sea level.
Harmsco Filtration Products conducted a test to evaluate the performance of the Anti-microbial filter media verses Standard filter media. Two cartridges were compared, both were manufactured with 4 oz filter media, one of the cartridge’s media contained Silver Zeolite fibers which inhibit the growth of biologicals in and on the filter cartridge.
Pesticide residue laboratories are required to undertake analyses of an ever increasing number of samples. The analyses typically involve use of multi-residue methods (both GC-MS and LC-MS) to test for over 500 pesticide residues.
Air stripping technology effectively removes VOCs, THMs, and CO2 for improved adherence to water quality regulations.
A static headspace method was developed using Teledyne Tekmar automated headspace vial samplers to meet the method requirements of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the US Department of the Treasury (TTB) method SSD: TM:2001 for testing fusel alcohols in alcoholic beverages.
In the early days of variable frequency drive (VFD) technology, the typical application was in process control for manufacturing synthetic fiber, steel bars, and aluminum foil.
Siemens offers to our customers the ability to both make process measurements and to remotely monitor the activity and health of that instrumentation without the need for SCADA systems or other expensive process control room products. By utilizing Siemens’ ability to offer unparalleled flow, level, pressure, temperature, and weight measurement as well as valve control, we can provide a broad range of process measurements and offer unequaled monitoring of the health and performance of those products.
In 2013 the Drinking Water Inspectorate for England & Wales announced that water samples collected in England and Wales must be tested in a laboratory that meets specific standards for drinking water sampling and analysis. At the time of the new instruction, the chlorine method employed at the Welsh Water Bretton laboratory was unable to meet these requirements, notably for the prescribed limit of detection. This prompted the laboratory to investigate new analytical options for monitoring residual chlorine.
QuEChERS is a Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe extraction method that has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities.
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that can be used to destroy the organic compounds that affect the taste and odor of potable water. Environmental concerns have led to increased use of ozone because, unlike chlorine, it does not form hazardous by-products.
Corrosion occurs because metals tend to oxidize when they come in contact with oxygenated water, resulting in the formation of stable metal oxides.
Though they all must support routing functionality, some devices do it better than others.
Routing consumes more energy, so the lifetime of the battery will be affected. Therefore, a device with a battery that is inexpensive, has a long lifetime, and is easy to change would be ideal. With all this considered, a WirelessHART temperature transmitter is a suitable option to operate as a repeater.
In areas where water, infrastructure, and resources are scarce, a natural and novel solution has emerged — arriving out of thin air, so to speak.
The lessons of Flint should be well heeded, and lead mitigation continued, but the big-picture story of lead exposures in the U.S. is a tale of tremendous progress.
Most utilities understand they have a nonrevenue water problem, but few know how to deal with it correctly. Start by learning more about how the issue affects your utility and what options are available.
Using seawater desalination RO treatment systems, coastal communities and island nations can achieve clean and safe water. So why do some countries utilize this advanced treatment technology, while others do not?
University of Miami professors who study water treatment and civil engineering say that water contamination issues point to human error.
Recently, Denver Water’s board approved its proposed “Lead Reduction Program Plan” to fully replace the estimated 75,000 lead service lines (LSLs) in their system within 15 years. The plan is an innovative solution that will remove the primary source of lead within Denver Water’s system, while avoiding the use of orthophosphate that can further exacerbate nutrient pollution problems in rivers, streams, and oceans.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.