Malta is an archipelago of three islands situated in the Mediterranean Sea, around fifty miles south of Sicily. There are no rivers of any significance on the islands, and the sparse annual rainfall is only about 500 mm. There is a water deficit in Malta. It occurs especially in summer when there is a great demand from the farmers for their irrigation and from the tourism sector.
Built in 2002, Southern Nevada Water Authority’s (SNWA) River Mountains Water Treatment Facility is a state-of-the art water treatment facility that delivers 300 million gallons per day and was designed to be expanded to deliver up to 600 million gallons per day of treated water in the future.
With its dedication in December 2015, the $1 billion Claude “Bud” Lewis Carlsbad Desalination Plant opened a spigot to the Pacific Ocean, creating a new, drought-proof source of drinking water for 3.1 million people in San Diego County, CA.
Sabine Pass, a large LNG refinery in the U.S., required a membrane desalination solution to cater to its extensive process water needs in order to produce a large amount of liquefied natural gas for export.
Orpic (Oman Oil Refineries and Petroleum Industries Company) required a thermal seawater desalination solution as part of its Sohar refinery improvement project to ensure an uninterrupted supply of fresh feed water to for its boilers.
The Egyptian Ethylene and Derivatives Company (ETHYDCO) is a joint venture company established with the purpose to produce Ethylene, Butadiene and their derivatives (Polyethylene, Poly Butadiene).
Hinduja National Power Corporation Ltd. (HNPCL) constructed a 1040 MW coal fired power plant at Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The power generated from the plant is intended to supply to Andhra Pradesh, as well as to other states through interstate transmission system.
When the government of Baja California, Mexico, declared a water emergency for the region of San Quintín in 2014, leaders knew they needed to find a solution to ensure residents a reliable, safe water source.
Desalination Technology Transforms 650 m3/day of Abused Industrial Wastewater
When a series of water crises in 2014 disrupted conventional utility services in the coastal Argentine city of Caleta Olivia, the city needed a way to ensure an uninterrupted water supply.
With water shortages and energy costs increasing worldwide, brewers are turning to state-of-the-art technologies to access water and use it more conservatively.
The shoreline of the Red Sea is a dazzling destination for tourists and locals to experience the beach and enjoy marine activities. In Egypt, the shoreline sprawls from the Suez Canal in the north, down to the southern part of the country bordering Sudan.
Kibbutz Reim had to convert salty groundwater into a high quality irrigation resource in this desert-like region. High recovery was essential to this customer, both because of the limited amount of groundwater available and the challenge of brine disposal from their inland location.
Industry accounts for nearly 60 percent of fresh water withdrawals in the developed world and agriculture consumes 70 percent of fresh water supplies globally, according to UNESCO.
A U.S.-based pulp and paper manufacturer required high purity process and boiler feed water. It was using water from a local well and treating it with a 150 gpm conventional RO system operating at 75% recovery, but this was creating 50 gpm of wastewater – over 26 million gallons per year.
Amiad Water Systems is a world leader in water filtration equipment and treatment solutions.
For over 50 years Amiad has been committed to developing a comprehensive line of robust water filtration equipment and integrated treatment packages for water applications in the industrial, municipal (potable and wastewater), oil and gas, commercial HVAC, ballast water, agriculture, irrigation, and aquaculture markets. Our filters are in use in over 70 countries around the world. Every Amiad system is built for efficiency, effectiveness and reliability and is backed by our commitment to excellence and dedication to customer service.
Filtronics has manufactured water and waste water treatment systems for industrial and municipal applications since 1974
QUA® is a leading-edge developer and manufacturer of advanced membrane products, which includes fractional electrodeionization (FEDI) and hollow fiber ultrafiltration module (Q-SEP). These are engineered with innovative technologies, which are used to treat challenging waters. QUA is leveraging its deep roots in R&D, the expertise of staff that is highly experienced in water treatment technologies, and its significant financial resources to become a global technology leader in the development of products for water and wastewater treatment applications.
De Nora Water Technologies is a leading supplier of water and wastewater treatment solutions. We provide our clients with some of the industry’s brightest minds, advanced technologies, and quality products to provide you with truly efficient, cost-effective solutions to your water and wastewater challenges
Evoqua Water Technologies, formerly Siemens Water Technologies, is a leader in water and wastewater treatment products, systems and services for industrial and municipal customers. We offer a wide range of proven product brands and advanced water and wastewater treatment technologies, mobile and emergency water supply solutions and service contract options.
Veolia Water Technologies offers comprehensive water and wastewater solutions for industrial and municipal customers. With unique technologies and process expertise, Veolia specializes in engineering, design, and project management, construction and execution.
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Desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from saline water. In regions of the world where water is scarce, such as Saudi Arabia, desalination is seen as a viable alternative to more traditional potable water treatment. Desalination has also been used to produce a reliable water supply in tourist destinations such as Aruba. Desalination has also been gaining traction in areas of rapid population growth such as Singapore and Beijing.
Traditionally, desalination plants have been expensive in comparison to traditional drinking water plants due to the upfront financing costs, treated water transportation costs and ongoing energy and concentrate disposal costs. However, as technical innovation brings the energy cost of desalination down and populations continue to migrate to warm, arid climates such as Phoenix, AZ, desalination is starting to catch on as a viable alternative.
All desalination processes involve three liquid streams. The first stream is the saline feed water which is also called brackish water or seawater. The second stream is the low-salinity product or finished, treated water. The third stream is the byproduct of the desalination process, the very saline concentrate brine or reject water.
The primary desalination process being used commercially for drinking water treatment is reverse osmosis, where a semi-permeable membrane is used to separate the salt and other minerals from the pure water. A reverse osmosis desalination system consists of four major processes. During the pretreatment phase, the incoming brackish or seawater is pretreated to adjust its pH, remove suspended solids, and control scaling to avoid fouling the membranes.
During the second phase, pumps raise the pressure of the pretreated feed water to create the correct pressure differential between the pressurized feed water and the product water to move the permeate through the membrane. The pressurization phase is followed by the separation phase, creating a freshwater product stream and a concentrated brine reject stream. Two of the most popular reverse osmosis membranes used during this phase are the spiral wound and hollow fine fiber membranes.
The final phase of the desalination process is the stabilization phase that often requires a pH adjustment and degasification before being transferred into the drinking water distribution system.