In one of Pennsylvania’s three original counties, water has played an integral – even historic – role in the region’s development.
By replacing gas chlorine with on-site hypochlorite generation, Nashville was able to improve the safety and longevity of its water plants to accommodate the growth of the “Heart of Country Music” far into the future. At a recent water conference, Glen Doss, Treatment Plant Manager stated, “In 2016, the last gas chlorine railcar left to large applause.”
Nestled in the Finger Lakes region in upstate New York, the town of Owasco is a popular vacation spot. With about 4,000 residents, the town, along with the nearby community of Auburn, relies on Owasco Lake for its drinking water. In 2016, Owasco and Auburn detected algal toxins in their finished water for the first time. With the busy summer tourist season quickly approaching, GHD contacted Calgon Carbon.
Bass Lake Water Company selected WRT’s Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system to remove high concentrations of uranium from their raw water source. The Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system is consistently reducing the uranium levels below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) since the 2007 installation.
Like many cities within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, the City of Coppell experienced water quality challenges at different periods throughout the year. In particular, the City had difficulty maintaining adequate chloramine residuals at the 1.5 MG Southwestern elevated storage tank during the warmer summer months when outdoor watering was restricted to conserve water.
The chromium removal pilot study was conducted for the County of San Bernardino, CA at their CSA 70 Zone J - Well 5 treatment facility. Chromium in the CSA 70 Zone J – Well 5 raw water source exceeds the current Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL).
“To me, Microclor® is the top of the line on‐site generation system on the market due to low maintenance and it being very user friendly.” Larry English, Water Quality Manager, Daphne Utilities. Read the full project profile to learn more.
The financial cost to maintain their ozone equipment, and increasing scarcity of replacement parts for their ozone generator, motivated a utility in Springfield, MO, to upgrade their ozone system. Read the full case study to learn how the plant assessed the energy cost of a sidestream ozone injection system compared to that of a turbine mixing design and showed that the Mazzei retrofit design reduced the energy cost of ozone contacting by an average of 69.2% under all plant flow conditions.
A single WRT Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system was selected by the City of Grand Island, NE to remove high concentrations of uranium in three city wells. When the Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system was installed in 2012, it was the largest uranium treatment facility in the nation. The high uranium in the raw water source is consistently being reduced to levels below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).
The Environment Working Group (EWG) recently released a report that claims up to 110 million Americans could have drinking water contaminated by PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) — much higher than the previous estimate of 16 million affected Americans.
For drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the EPA’s Disinfection Byproduct Rule (DBP) is a way of life. Unfortunately, for many facilities the equipment and operations haven’t evolved with the regulation mandates, leaving facilities in a tough spot. For a DWTP in Douglas County, KS, its challenges with accurate TOC measurement and testing, along with expensive calibrations and extended downtime with its prior TOC analyzer led it to trialing the Hach QbD1200 TOC Analyzer. Read the full case study to learn more.
NRDC’s new analysis of the most recent EPA data finds that nearly 30 million people in the United States drank water from community water systems that violated the EPA’s Lead and Copper Rule between January 2015 and March 2018.
The North Texas Metropolitan Water District began working to add ozone to its four interconnected water treatment facilities which operate as the Wylie Water Treatment Plant (WTP).
In April 2013, City Utilities started up three Microclor Model MC‐1500 skid systems, each rated at 1,500 pounds per day of free available chlorine.
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).