CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

Standardizing On-Site Hypochlorite Generation Disinfection Technology In Water And Wastewater Treatment Plants Increases Safety And Eases Operations
Standardizing On-Site Hypochlorite Generation Disinfection Technology In Water And Wastewater Treatment Plants Increases Safety And Eases Operations

In late 2005, the City of Newberg, Oregon, decided to upgrade their water treatment plant disinfection process from gas chlorine to on-site hypochlorite generation (OSHG) in an effort to simplify operations and increase operator safety. The plant produced an average of 2.5 million gallons per day (MGD), with a peak capacity of 5 MGD.

  • Southern California Water District Reduces Polymer Usage 30% With Polyblend® Polymer Activation System
    Southern California Water District Reduces Polymer Usage 30% With Polyblend® Polymer Activation System

    Santa Margarita Water District (SMWD), located in southern California’s Orange County, between Los Angeles and San Diego, provides drinking water and wastewater services to over 165,000 residents and businesses. SMWD approached UGSI Solutions about a Polyblend® Polymer Activation System trial at their 3 A Water Reclamation Plant.

  • On-Site Hypochlorite System Delivers Historic Efficiency Levels
    On-Site Hypochlorite System Delivers Historic Efficiency Levels

    In one of Pennsylvania’s three original counties, water has played an integral – even historic – role in the region’s development.

  • Groundwater Replenished To Prevent Sea Level Rise
    Groundwater Replenished To Prevent Sea Level Rise

    Groundwater in Southeastern coastal Virginia is depleting due to over-drafting without intentional replenishment. This phenomenon makes the Potomac aquifer susceptible to saltwater intrusion as well as land subsidence, or the gradual settling or sudden sinking of the earth’s surface. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District responded to these issues by using groundwater augmentation as a way to recharge the aquifer, prevent saltwater intrusion, and potentially increase ground elevation.

  • Is Coagulation Followed By Filtration Viable To Remove Arsenic When Raw Water Arsenic Levels Are High?
    Is Coagulation Followed By Filtration Viable To Remove Arsenic When Raw Water Arsenic Levels Are High?

    The objective of the pilot study was to demonstrate “proof of concept” if coagulation followed by filtration was a viable technology to remove arsenic in water from Well No. 6 when raw water arsenic levels are so high, >70 ppb. Preparations were made to reduce the pH of the raw water if it was required. Also, two unique arsenic adsorptive medias were evaluated as a final polishing step to the effluent of the coagulation/filtration process.

  • How To Know It’s Time To Replace Your RO Membrane
    How To Know It’s Time To Replace Your RO Membrane

    Reverse osmosis, or RO, is one of the finest technologies to purify water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS) levels of more than 500 ppm. Reverse osmosis plant exporters explain the technology as a separation technology where dissolved and invisible impurities in water are separated with the help of semi-permeable membrane or RO membrane that works under high pressure.

  • Full-Scale Installation Report For Z-92® Uranium Removal – Morongo Del Sur, CA
    Full-Scale Installation Report For Z-92® Uranium Removal – Morongo Del Sur, CA

    The Golden State Water Company selected WRT’s Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system to reduce high concentrations of uranium in a single treatment system for three wells located in the Morongo Valley of California.  Since installation of the Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system in Morongo del Sur in 2013, the uranium levels are being reduced to levels below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).

  • Bulk Hypochlorite Disinfection System Replaced With On-Site Hypochlorite Generation System Saving About $160,000 Per Year In Materials
    Bulk Hypochlorite Disinfection System Replaced With On-Site Hypochlorite Generation System Saving About $160,000 Per Year In Materials

    Originally built to treat 10 million gallons per day (MGD), the Quail Creek Water Treatment Plant in Washington County, Utah, now has an operational capacity of 60 MGD and a design capacity of 80 MGD.

  • Australian City Installs Microclor On‐Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation System
    Australian City Installs Microclor On‐Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation System

    Bathurst is the home of the Bathurst 1000 Race, the largest NASCAR-style “touring car” race in Australia. On race day, tens of thousands of additional visitors tax the capacity of the Bathurst 5 million-gallon-per- day wastewater treatment plant. The diligence and capability of the treatment staff allows the plant to meet the challenge every year. 

  • Top Research Institute Turns To On-Site Generation For Drinking Water System
    Top Research Institute Turns To On-Site Generation For Drinking Water System

    As one of the top 20 American research institutes in the United States, Texas A&M has hundreds of laboratory facilities on its campus where a variety of proven water treatment technologies are used to control the quality of the water used in research.

  • Full-Scale Installation Report For Z-92® Uranium Removal – City Of Grand Island, NE
    Full-Scale Installation Report For Z-92® Uranium Removal – City Of Grand Island, NE

    A single WRT Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system was selected by the City of Grand Island, NE to remove high concentrations of uranium in three city wells.  When the Z-92® Uranium Removal treatment system was installed in 2012, it was the largest uranium treatment facility in the nation. The high uranium in the raw water source is consistently being reduced to levels below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). 

  • PFC Contamination: Issues And Answers
    PFC Contamination: Issues And Answers

    PFCs are turning up in source waters and news cycles, drawing both public and regulatory concern. How pervasive is this group of emerging contaminants — namely PFOS and PFOA — and how might the saga unfold for utilities?

  • San Diego Plant Cuts THM Levels In Half
    San Diego Plant Cuts THM Levels In Half

    The 34 MGD Otay Water Treatment Plant in San Diego, California serves a population of approximately 200,000. It is a conventional treatment plant that uses coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The plant receives raw water from two different sources — imported water from the Colorado River and runoff water from three local reservoirs.

Tank Shark® Active Tank Mixing Proven To Be Superior To Dedicated Tank Inlet/Outlet Design
Tank Shark® Active Tank Mixing Proven To Be Superior To Dedicated Tank Inlet/Outlet Design

San Jose Water Company (SJWC) provides drinking water for over a million people in the greater San Jose Metropolitan region and is a recognized leader in drinking water treatment and distribution system water quality management. With over 90 water storage facilities in service, planned maintenance and rehabilitation of capital assets is a key component of SJWC’s CIP program.

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PRODUCTS

Field Pilot Studies Field Pilot Studies

Pilot tests conducted at numerous facilities demonstrate that Loprest treatment processes successfully reduce iron, manganese, arsenic, nitrate, and many other select contaminants in drinking water to well below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Loprest can provide self-contained portable, free-standing pilot units or mobile, trailer-mounted units, depending on specific testing needs at each site. Services include unit delivery, setup, and operation. Upon completion of the pilot study, Loprest will prepare a Pilot Study Report and a detailed cost proposal for a full-scale system.

NoMonia Biotreatment Solutions NoMonia Biotreatment Solutions

NoMonia is a dual-stage engineered biotreatment process that relies on naturally occurring bacteria. Typically, the amount of ammonia that can be oxidized during the natural nitrification process is limited by oxygen availability and its saturation level in the water.

Injection Skids Injection Skids

Mazzei injection systems are designed using Mazzei’s patented technologies to obtain the most efficient mixing and contacting of air, oxygen, ozone or chemicals into a water stream.

Ultra-High Recovery Reverse Osmosis Ultra-High Recovery Reverse Osmosis

AdEdge-ROTEC’s Flow Reversal technology is designed to be implemented in new and existing reverse osmosis desalination facilities for water purification, brackish water, process water, and other industrial applications. This high recovery technology addresses concerns often associated with desalination and enables significant system performance improvements, leading to higher profitability, reduced operating costs, and a lower environmental impact.

Ion Exchange Systems Ion Exchange Systems

Loprest has been providing ion exchange treatment systems for the removal of arsenic, nitrate, perchlorate, hardness, fluoride and other contaminants for many decades. Loprest has the engineering process and application expertise to select the proper exchange resin and design a treatment system that will optimize the system performance.

UV Package Plant UV Package Plant

Calgon Carbon UV Technologies is pleased to introduce the C3500D/PS Packaged System for UV Wastewater Disinfection. This product uniquely addresses the needs of smaller communities with effluent flows of less than 2.6 million gallons a day.

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DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL PODCASTS

Challenges For Water Utilities Spur Technology Upgrades Challenges For Water Utilities Spur Technology Upgrades

Lee Odell, Water Treatment Global Technology Lead at CH2M HILL, discusses some of the current challenges that water utilities are facing and how CH2M HILL is well-poised to address them.

The Reward Of Risk: New Tech Pays Off The Reward Of Risk: New Tech Pays Off

The engineering community can sometimes be wary of trying anything other than the technologies they are already accustomed to, says Rich Cavagnaro of Adedge, a purification technology company with a focus on nitrates and radionuclides.

Biological Filtration For Drinking Water Treatment Takes Off Biological Filtration For Drinking Water Treatment Takes Off

Biottta is a relatively new biological filtration process for drinking water treatment, addressing nitrates, perchlorates, chromium-6 and a number of VOCs as well. In this Water Online Radio interview, AdEdge Water Technologies’ Chad Miller and Rich Cavagnaro discuss its emergence in the water treatment market and some of the specific contaminants it addresses.

Key Trends In Water And Wastewater Treatment: Non-Chemical Disinfection, Remote Management, And Urbanization Key Trends In Water And Wastewater Treatment: Non-Chemical Disinfection, Remote Management, And Urbanization

Rick VanSant, President and CEO of UV Pure Technologies, explains some of the key trends currently shaping the water and wastewater market, including non-chemical disinfection, remote management, and urbanization.

UV-LED Technology: The Latest In Disinfection UV-LED Technology: The Latest In Disinfection

Dan Shaver, Business Development Manager at Aquionics, talks about the advantages of UV-LED technology for disinfection: low energy requirements, chemical-free and customizable design, and proficiency in solar or battery-powered applications.

Ozone: An Emerging Star For Disinfection Ozone: An Emerging Star For Disinfection

There are many places around the country where water shortage is a big issue. Water is the most precious resource we have, and in light of the shortage, people have started trying to investigate creative ways of ‘what’s my next water resource,’ Chris Milligan, vice president, director of engineering with BlueInGreen, told Water Online Radio in an interview.

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CONTAMINANT REMOVAL VIDEOS

Calgon Carbon Activated Carbon Video Calgon Carbon Activated Carbon Video

As a leading manufacturer of activated carbon, with broad capabilities in ultraviolet light disinfection, Calgon Carbon provides purification solutions for drinking water, wastewater, pollution abatement, and a variety of industrial and commercial manufacturing processes. This animation takes you through the process of manufacturing activated carbon.

WEDECO PRO<sub>3</sub>MIX Overview WEDECO PRO3MIX Overview

The PRO3MIX bromate control system is an intelligent ozone-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) introduction and reaction system enabling ozone treatment in a compact and intelligent design to mitigate bromate formation even in cases of high level bromide in source water. This short animated overview walks the reader through the various disinfection points of the process.

The ozonia Innovation Labs Have Set The New Standard For Ozone Technology The ozonia Innovation Labs Have Set The New Standard For Ozone Technology

The newest family in the SUEZ ozone range, the ozonia® M includes all the latest developments from the ozonia® innovation labs. Ozonia® IGS+ dielectric technology provides even lower energy consumption and increased ozone production capacity up to 25 kg/h resulting in a lower cost per kg of ozone. The new ozonia® smartO3™ automation platform adds a suite of advanced features designed to optimize system performance and reduce operation costs. Finally, an innovative design provides improved resistance to environmental conditions in a more compact footprint.

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ABOUT

The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.

There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.

The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.

The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.

A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.

Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.

Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits.  Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.

Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).