Bathurst is the home of the Bathurst 1000 Race, the largest NASCAR-style “touring car” race in Australia. On race day, tens of thousands of additional visitors tax the capacity of the Bathurst 5 million-gallon-per- day wastewater treatment plant. The diligence and capability of the treatment staff allows the plant to meet the challenge every year.
Per- and Polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that persist in the environment. These chemicals have been used for decades in consumer products to make them non-stick and water resistant. They are also found in firefighting foams and are applied in many industrial processes.
First settled in 1836, the City of Berea, Ohio gained acclaim as being the source for dimensioned stone formed from locally quarried sandstone, notably grindstones. The grindstones were shipped to Cleveland by oxcart and, as demand grew, later by a purpose-built railroad to the Big Four Railroad across the Midwest. Now many of the former quarry pits are better known as Baldwin Lake, Wallace Lake and Coe Lake.
With the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) now requiring arsenic levels of 10 ppb for drinking water, reducing high levels of arsenic in one of its community’s water supply had been a challenge for Eureka County. Find out how a community, who once searched for silver, hunted down a way to remove high levels of arsenic from its drinking water.
Loudoun Water in Northern Virginia has a history of embracing change and seizing opportunities to create a more robust and sustainable water system. Situated in the fast-growing suburbs of Washington DC, Loudoun Water provides chloraminated drinking water to over 65,000 households through a network of over 1,200 miles of pipes and 7 tanks. A key element of Loudoun Water’s mission to sustainably manage water resources has been their efforts to improve the operational efficiency of their drinking water system. For a chloraminated water system, that means getting control of nitrification.
Groundwater in Southeastern coastal Virginia is depleting due to over-drafting without intentional replenishment. This phenomenon makes the Potomac aquifer susceptible to saltwater intrusion as well as land subsidence, or the gradual settling or sudden sinking of the earth’s surface. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District responded to these issues by using groundwater augmentation as a way to recharge the aquifer, prevent saltwater intrusion, and potentially increase ground elevation.
Installing and operating an ozone oxidation system for wastewater remediation at a gold mine located in a remote region of Alaska is full of challenges.
Originally built to treat 10 million gallons per day (MGD), the Quail Creek Water Treatment Plant in Washington County, Utah, now has an operational capacity of 60 MGD and a design capacity of 80 MGD.
The objective of the pilot study was to demonstrate “proof of concept” if coagulation followed by filtration was a viable technology to remove arsenic in water from Well No. 6 when raw water arsenic levels are so high, >70 ppb. Preparations were made to reduce the pH of the raw water if it was required. Also, two unique arsenic adsorptive medias were evaluated as a final polishing step to the effluent of the coagulation/filtration process.
Upper Deerfield Township, NJ relies on groundwater from four wells measuring 120 to 160 feet deep. The water is treated at two treatment plants with a capacity of 2.2 MGD and then pumped out to the distribution system with approximately 750,000 gallons of storage. Since the deep groundwater is hard, operators add lime to the finished water to raise the pH to reduce hardness.
It's spring and the algae are in bloom, but harmful algal blooms are far from the only threats to drinking water. Fortunately, there are advanced treatment technologies to handle some of the most persistent contaminants today, including algal toxins, Cryptosporidium, and 1,4-dioxane.
In April 2013, City Utilities started up three Microclor Model MC‐1500 skid systems, each rated at 1,500 pounds per day of free available chlorine.
Santa Margarita Water District (SMWD), located in southern California’s Orange County, between Los Angeles and San Diego, provides drinking water and wastewater services to over 165,000 residents and businesses. SMWD approached UGSI Solutions about a Polyblend® Polymer Activation System trial at their 3 A Water Reclamation Plant.
A potable water plant in Eastern Angelina County, Texas, serves over 2,000 rural customers.
The removal of contaminants from public drinking water systems in the US is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. These are legally enforceable standards that protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water. Similar regulations are managed by agencies worldwide to protect their citizens from drinking water contamination.
There are a plethora of drinking water contaminant removal technologies that public and private water systems use to comply with the EPA’s drinking water regulations. These include reverse osmosis, membrane, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, chlorine disinfection, UV disinfection and Ozone-based disinfection practices.
The EPA’s list of drinking water contaminants is organized into six types of contaminants and lists each contaminant along with its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), some of the potential health effects from long-term exposure above the MCL and the probable source of the drinking water contaminant.
The six types of contaminants are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
Examples of microbiological, organic contaminants are Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia. Both of these microorganic pathogens are found in human or animal fecal waste and cause gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
A common disinfectant used in municipal drinking water treatment to disinfect microorganisms is chlorine. The EPA’s primary drinking water regulations require drinking water treatment plants to maintain a maximum disinfectant residual level (MDRL) for chlorine of 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some of the detrimental health effects of chlorine above the MCL are eye irritation and stomach discomfort.
Similarly, byproducts from the chlorine-based disinfection methods used by public water systems to remove contaminants can be contaminants in their own right if not removed from the drinking water prior to it being released into the distribution system. Examples of disinfection byproducts include bromate, chlorite and total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Not removed from drinking water, these disinfection byproducts can increase risk of cancer and cause central nervous system issues.
Chemical contamination of drinking water can be caused by inorganic chemicals such as arsenic, barium lead, mercury and cadmium or organic chemicals such as benzene, dichloroethane and other carbon-derived compounds. These chemicals get into source water through a variety of natural and industrial processes. Arsenic for example is present in source water through the erosion of natural deposits. Many of the chemical contaminants are derived from industrial wastewater such as discharges from petroleum refineries, steel or pulp mills or the corrosion of asbestos cement water mains or galvanized pipes.
Radium and uranium are examples of radionuclides. Radium 226 and Radium 228 must be removed to a level of 5 picocuries/liter (PCI/L) and Uranium to a level of 30 micrograms/liter (30 ug/L).